THE MEANING OF “LAW” AND “COMMANDMENTS”
IN THE JOHANNINE WRITINGS
By Danilo Carvalho
What do the terms “law” and “commandments” in the Johannine writings mean?
Usually the term “law” and the words “commandment, commandments or command” are used with the same meaning in the Bible, but in the Johannine writings there is a clear distinction between them. The expression “law” appears 15 times in Johannine writings, the word “commandment” appears 13 times, the word “commandments” 10 times and the word “command” appears 6 times. (KJV King James Version 1982)
Before we analyse the meaning John gave these terms I would like to answer the question on the meaning of the law.
When we talk about law it is good to be specific on what kind of law we talk about because there are different kinds of the law and with different meanings. For example: “The law of gravity, every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force heading along the line combining the two. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses.”  This is a natural law which is observable.
The civil law is the section of the law that deals with disputes between individuals or organizations.
The common law is a system of law that is derived from judge’s decisions which arise from the judicial branch of government, rather than statutes or constitutions (which are derived from the legislative branch of government).
The law can refer also to any system of regulations to govern the conduct of the people of a community, society or nation, in response to the need for regularity, consistency and justice based upon collective human experience.
In its most general and comprehensive sense, law signifies a rule of action, and is applied indiscriminately to all kinds of action; whether animate or inanimate, rational or irrational. In its more confined sense, law denotes the rule, not of actions in general, but of human action or conduct.
The law may be universal or particular, written or unwritten, published or secret.
I. THE LAW IN THE BIBLE
When people talk about Bible they talk about the ‘Book of the Law of God’ such as a compendium with hundreds and hundreds of rules of conduct the one hand and the other hand hundred and hundreds of penalties for violation of that rules of conduct.
In this study I want to be more specific about this subject, I want to analyse specifically the word “Law” in Old and New Testament and in particularity its meaning in Johannine writings.
In the Old Testament, we find a variety of terms for law, the commonest of which are: ת tôrhā ‘instruction, teaching, guidance, law’; “ (ש”ע) חוק; ת hōq statute, decree” ; “דעת judgment , legal decision;”  “ דבור dābār , word” ;” מצוה miswāh ‘command (ment)”. 
As we can see there is a variety of terms for law. Sometimes it refers to the Torah the five books of Moses also known for Pentateuch (Luke 24:44), at other times all the books of the Old Testament (John 10:34), sometimes the whole Bible, Old and New Testament (Psalm 19:7). The term “law” in Scripture it is not a collection of rules from a capricious and despotic God but a manifestation of the will of a Holy God who expect to have a relationship with His holy people.
It is very important to remember that, it was God who said “being holy like I am Holy.” His law is an expression of His love to these that He created in his own image. Like Dale Patrick wrote:
The divine Law presented in the Old testament is the original statement of the will of the biblical God and the basis for subsequent elaborations, adaptations, and transformations wrought in Jewish the Old Testament study, attention is concentrated on a few specific texts, namely, the series of commandments found in the collections of legal statement found in the Pentateuch, o Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy)
translation. The word tôrâh derives from yârâh meaning ‘to shoot out the hand as pointing, to show, indicate’, ‘to teach, instruct’, ‘to lay foundations’, ‘to sprinkle, to water’, ‘to shoot, as an arrow’. Some commentators said: the Torah/Law of Moses might better be translated as ‘the instruction of God by revelation through Moses’.
In the New Testament the word “law” occurs 223 times (King James Version 1982) .Most of time the word used it is no,moj nomos which in Greek means “law” costume or that which govern the conduct of man.
Some studies say ‘God gave four different types of laws to the Israelites in the Old Testament. Such as: The Ten Commandments; the Religious Ceremonial Laws; The Health Laws and The Civil Laws and because that sometimes it is very difficult to know which “law” is being referred to’.
The term “Law” (nomos) in the New Testament usually refers to the Law of Moses, which the Bible says was given by God through Moses to His people. In most cases the focus is on the Ten Commandments, a “moral” Law and a “ceremonial” law. After same time occur terms like that, “the law and the prophets” or “the law of Christ”. (e.g. Mt.5:17; 7:12; 22:40, Lk. 16:16; Jn. 1:45; Acts 13:15; Rom:3: 21; Gal. 6:2; I Cor. 9:21)
In the New Testament the word “law” means ‘principle’, ‘order’, or ‘rule’ (e.g. Rom. 3:27; 7:21,23; 8:2)
There are no doubt some of references about the “law” in the New Testament; especially the moral law have significant similarities to the moral law found in the Old Testament. Thus we can see the term “moral law” as referring, not so much to a clearly labelled subset of in the Jewish law, as to continuity between the moral law taught in the New Testament and those underlying the laws of the Old Testament. The Holy God of the Old Testament is the same God in the New Testament. When Jesus gave a New Commandment he said, “Love God and love others.” This new Commandment tells us the kind of life that our love for God and our neighbour would require.
In the New Testament “the Law” or “Commandment” refers back to that old situation when people looked at obedience to the commandments as the way of acceptance with God with clean hands and pure heart. (Psalm 24:3).
II. LAW AND COMMANDMENT IN JOHANNINE WRITINGS
The relationship between John’s writings (Gospel, Letters, and Revelation) and others writers of the New Testament about “the Law” is a topic of interest in this essay.
When John wrote about “the Law,” of course, he refers also to the Law of Moses. “For the law was given through Moses “In the Fourth Gospel John includes thirteen direct references to Moses, that mean John wanted to show clearly the distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of Jesus Christ, which we will see in his new term chosen to talk about new rules of life for people of God.
We have a series of references to Moses which show us the clear intention of John to make some distinction between the Law which God gave to Moses on Sinai and the commandment to be observed by his followers, for examples:
John 1:17 “The law indeed was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.”
John 1:45 “Philip found Nathaniel and said to him, “We have found him about whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth.”
John 3:14 “And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up.”
John 5:45-46 “… your accuser is Moses, on whom you have set your hope. If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me.”
John 6:32 “Very truly, I tell you, it was not Moses who gave you the bread from heaven…”
John 7:19 “Did not Moses give you the law? Yet none of you keeps the law.”
John 7:22-23 “Moses gave you circumcision (it is, of course, not from Moses, but from the patriarchs), and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath. If a man receives circumcision on the Sabbath in order that the Law of Moses may not be broken, are you angry with me because I healed a man’s whole body on the Sabbath?”
John 8:5 “now in the law Moses commanded us to stone such women. Now what do you say?”
John 9:28-29 “You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. We know that God has spoken to Moses, but as for this man, we do not know where he comes from.”
Paulo Fraser said that: “the ‘Law’ is the body of teaching revealed to Moses which served as a basis for the entire social and religious life of Israel.”
When we analyze the writings of John especially in the Gospel we can see John did not talk just about the Pentateuch. For example, in John 10:34; cf. Psalms 82:6 or John 15:25; cf. Psalms 35:19; 69:4.
In some Johannine passages the expression “the Law” may refer to the Law of Moses in the sense of a specific commandment. Thus: “Has not Moses given you the law? Yet not one of you keeps the law. Why are you trying to kill me?” (John 7:19).
In all the references from the Fourth Gospel the terms “the law, our law, your law” are used always referring to the Old Testament Law known as Pentateuch. As Kenneth Grayston wrote “References to Moses and the law are therefore samples of conflict between Jesus and his opponents. Apart from that, the Gospel has little interest in the moral law (except for community love) and certain disapproval of sight to the blind, specially those Pharisees who (as disciples of Moses) could not identify the source of Jesus teaching.”
In my opinion John was not any interested in teaching Jewish Law when he made a lot of references to Moses but he just wanted to show that the Law through Moses itself testified about Jesus Christ. He tries to appeal to a Jews conscience (John 7:19, 49 and 51), as followers and who are faithful to the Law of Moses. To quote Brinsmead “John also teaches that the Law not only points to Christ; it is not only a prophecy of Christ; but the Law is replaced or superseded by Jesus Christ. This thought is woven throughout the book of John but is especially presented in the prologue (John 1:1-18).”
Doing more expositive analyses of the writings of John we can better to understand the meaning the words “Law”, “Commandment or Commandments”, and also the word “Command”
Starting with word Law in the Gospel we have 18 quotations. We will analyse some of these texts to see how John wrote about this matter. For example in, John 1:17 “for the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ”. This text shows parallelism between Jesus and Moses concerning his complete telling, or revealing of the truth through our Saviour Jesus Chris; it shows clearly the relevance of the grace which Christians have received. The NIV has aptly brought out the meaning of the cryptic phrase “grace upon grace” with the rendering one blessing after another. From the New Bible Commentary we read that: “The fullness does not come to us all at once but in a progression of gracious experiences. There may be a contrast between Moses and Jesus Christ in the different method of approach to God, in that legal observances are inferior to the acceptance of gracious gift. But the text does not require a contrast. It is better to see a comparison between God’s sending the law through Moses and grace through Jesus.” 
In this text we can see the place the Law occupies in the Fourth Gospel, and the manner in which it is presented. John tries to show to the early Church the authority from the Law through Moses and the authority of Jesus. John did not deny the divine authority of the Law of Moses but he tries to show the early Church that the authority of Jesus is also divine. When we see emphasis on discontinuity in John’s declaration that while ‘the law was given by Moses, grace and truth came by Jesus Christ’ (John 1:17). In fact, consistent with this reading of 1:17, the traditional understanding of 1:16 as ‘For of his fullness we have all we received, and grace upon grace’. With that John teaches that, the greater grace of the new covenant under Christ is replacing the previous grace under the Mosaic Law.
John tries to show that the “Law” points to Jesus as the Christ. He is a fulfilment the Law. John is clear to show that Jesus came to replaces the Mosaic Law in doing what Father expected to be done. John Ball said:
The sense of the place seems to be this, that the Law prefiguring Christ, and redemption in Him, and teaching and commanding what ought to be done, but neither giving grace to do it, nor containing the substance of the thing prefigured, was given by Moses: but grace to do what was commanded came from Christ, in whom also the substance of what was prefigured by the Ceremonies is fulfilled.
In John 1: 45 Philip went to Nathaniel, and said unto him, we have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. From John 1:45 to 51 we can see the literal and historical sense of John when he introduce the calling of Nathanael and his disbelief in the divinity of Jesus. In these texts (45-51) John also has used the occasion to show that, Jesus is the God-Man, the son of Joseph.
In John 5: 10 “and so the Jews said to the man who had been healed, It is the Sabbath; the law forbids you to carry your mat.” In this text John introduced the Sabbath question; does Jesus violate the Law by working on this day? We cannot forget that, the Sabbath day was very important to the Jews people. The Old Testament law was clear: “Six days do your work, but on the seventh day do not work” (Exodus 23:12). So, Nehemiah said, “When evening shadows fell on the gates of Jerusalem before the Sabbath, I ordered the doors to be shut and not opened until the Sabbath was over” (Nehemiah 13:19). The prophet Jeremiah quoted God: “This is what the Lord says: Be careful not to carry a load on the Sabbath day or bring it through the gates of Jerusalem. Do not bring a load out of your houses or do any work on the Sabbath, but keep the Sabbath day holy, as I commanded your forefathers” (Jeremiah 17:21-22).
Pancaro says: “in chapter 5 the evangelist limits himself to pointing out that the apparent violation of the Sabbath by Jesus is at the origin of his being persecuted by the Jews (John 5:16). Jesus offers an elaborate and highly theological defence of his activity (John 5: 17, 19-29), but the intent of Jews to convict for transgressing the Law is only implied.”
In John chapters 7 to 10 we find again some references to the Decalogue, the first reference to the law in ch. 7 comes at 7:19. Jesus is in the Temple defending the authority of his teaching.
On the one hand John shows Pharisees to interrogating Jesus because of some works he did on the Sabbath day, breaking the Law of Moses. On the other hand he shows Jesus’ defence when He likens his action to circumcision performed on the Sabbath. He defended the healing of the lame man as a gift of wholeness like circumcision, a gift which includes the receiver within the creative activity of God.
In ch. 9, John shows another Sabbath healing done to enable teaching on who is a sinner, that is, who is a lawbreaker. Again the teaching is the manifestation of the works of God (9:3). The Pharisees are challenged by the man given sight on every count but they are unable to see beyond the letter of the commandment: “This man is not from God, for he does not keep the Sabbath” (John 9:16).
In John 10:18 we see Jesus explaining his authority to lay down his life for the sheep. He said “… This command I received from my Father”, that mean every thing Jesus did is in obedience his father, because his obedience He has authority to give us his commandment. He said “If you obey my commands, you will remain in my love, just as I have obeyed my Fathers commands and remain in his love” (John 15:10)
In some of texts John changes the article for pronouns (our; your; their) law. (John 8:17; 10:34; 15:25; 18:31; 19:7). As Brinsmead said “it is significant that the book of John presents the Law as the Law of the Jews. On the lips of Jesus in the Gospel of John, the Law invariably becomes your Law, their Law–namely, the Law of the Jews.”
After all these quotations from the Fourth Gospel we must conclude that John trying to teach the early Church a significant change in the way the people of God must obey his God, not by observance of the law but by obedience of the faith in he who symbolizes all the law and prophets, Jesus Christ the Son of God. John teaches a new Christian community a new rule of life, not based on the Law of Moses but in a new Commandment through Jesus the Messiah, the complete revelation of God.
Paulo Fraser said: “John is clearly making the statement that in the Revelation of Jesus Christ a new law, a life-giving law, now applies. The revelation of God is now no longer in Moses”.
Like I said in the beginning John makes a clear distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of Christ. We can see in his writings which word or words he chose to teach a new rule of life to the early Church. When he talks about that rules he used the words, Commandment, Commandments or Command.
In his writing John uses the words, Commandment 13times, Commandments 10 times and Command 6 times.
When John talked about new rules of life for a new people of God, he stops to using the word “law” and he passes to use the word “Commandments” or “Command” given through Jesus Christ. Brinsmead said that: “It seems that he abandons the term “law” when trying to express our obligation to the will of God because of its tendency to become depersonalized and legalistic”.
When we talked about new commandment, we should be careful with the following question: Does this new commandment supersede the Ten Commandments and replace all other biblical laws? Jesus clearly answered this fundamental question when He said, “Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets” (Matthew 5:17). Our God is not God of contradiction, He cannot give one eternal Law and decide destroy it with sending his Son Jesus. It would be ignorance on our part to think this way. It is true there are many people who believe in Christ as their Saviour and also believe that this new commandment frees them from any obligation to obey God’s laws. They misunderstand what Jesus said and meant. The Holy Scriptures, in the Old and New Testaments, teach that we should love each other (Leviticus 19:18). Jesus did not introduce love as a new principle. That was already in the Bible and a fundamental part of God’s instruction to ancient Israel. What, then, was new in Christ’s “new commandment”? Notice His wording. He said in John 15:14 “you are my friends if you do what I command.” And his command is that “…Love one another; as I have loved you.” (John15:12).
John introduces us to Jesus as such an example of love, the perfect model of the love of God; when Jesus sacrificed his own life for us. In John 15:13 we read that, “Greater love has no one than this, than to lay down one’s life for his friends”. What was mew was His sacrifice love to us.
When John talked of new commandment he did not talk about some kind of moral law but he talked about a spiritual life which a new believer in Jesus Christ should keep reflecting the example of his Master, in keeping the Father’s commandment, and loving each other. With the new commandment, Jesus makes his disciples a part of his own way of life; he enables them to love as he loves.
According to the apostle John, a new communion with God is expressed by observing the commandments. “Whoever keeps his commandments remains in God and God in them” (1 John 3:24). On Sinai, God made a covenant with “those who love him and keep his commandments” (Deuteronomy 7:9). John shows to the new believer that, as God made a covenant with the Jews He wants to make a new covenant with his new people in keeping the commandment of his Son Jesus Christ.
John is very clear to shows that, without a commandment, there is no relationship with God.
It is very important to be clear saying that, Jesus does not absolve his followers from a moral code or rule. Jesus’ repeated call for conformity to his commandment clearly indicates the importance of obedience in the life of the believer (e.g., John 14:15, 21-24; 15:10-14).Conform Thielman, wrote, “The new law, then, incorporates parts of the Mosaic law within it, but apparently only insofar as the teaching of Jesus reaffirms their validity specific teachings of Jesus. Furthermore, while the law of Christ absorbed elements of Mosaic Law, this new law is a different law forming a new norm for the new people of God”.
For John, while the believer is no longer under the Old Testament law, he or she is bound to obedience to the commandments of Christ, including the great commandment of love. For John, the true child of God is one who walks in the light and in obedience to his word (1 John 2:3-5, 3:24). Therefore, the Christian is not free from obedience to specific commandments. What is different in this dispensation is that the focus of those commandments is on the person and teachings of our Master Jesus Christ. Jesus instructs them [and us] to make disciples, an endeavour that includes teaching them to obey all things which Jesus commanded. (e.g., John 14:15) It is very clearly, any serious effort to carry out this mandate must require instruction in and a call for obedience to Christ’s commandments, a position that (independent of one’s view of the Mosaic Law) cannot accurately be construed as antinomianism.
Believers living under the New Testament have one commandment, which is to love as Jesus loved. By keeping this one commandment we fulfil all other commandments given for our relationship with God and our neighbour. In John 13:23 Jesus said: “A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must one another” In John15: 12, He continued, ” My command is this: Love each other as I have loved you” and 1 John 3:23 the evangelist wrote again, “And this is his command; to believe in the name of his Son, Jesus Christ and to love one another as he commanded us” (NIV).
There is much discussion about the old and new commandment in 1 John 2:7, 8 “Dear friends, I am not writing you a new command but and old one, which you have had since the beginning. This old command is the message you have heard. Yet I am writing you a new command; its truth is seen in him and you, because the darkness is passing and the true light is already shining”. The question is how can a commandment from God be both “old” and “new”? The apostle John is known as the apostle of love, so as we continue to read chapter two, we find that this is the topic of the commandment that is both old and new.
It is true; the commandment to love is not new because in the Old Testament we find the same commandment in the Law of Moses from Leviticus 19:18 “Do not seek revenge or bear a grudge against one of your people, but love your neighbour as yourself. I am the Lord”
If we analyze carefully the old commandment and the new commandment we see that the emphasis was placed on obedience and walking on the light. Keeping this new and great commandment of love, we will be keeping every commandment from the old commandment. Like said George Zeller:
To keep this one law is to keep all of the man ward commandments in the Decalogue. Certainly if a man really loves his neighbour as himself he would never murder him, abuse his wife, steal from him, lie against him or covet what is his. It is also a very convicting commandment because it cuts to the very core of human selfishness. Too often we love ourselves much more than we love our neighbour, and put our interests over and above his.
Like I said before Jesus is the example of love for the new followers. He proved this when he lay down his life for his followers, “Greater love has no one than this, that he lay down his life for his friends”. (John 15:13) When John wrote this verse about a new commandment of love he was thinking in the way that Jesus gave his life for his disciples. Up to now the commandment to love your neighbour was just one of the rules from a moral law, the old Mosaic Law, but now the command to love one another can be called new for two reasons: First, it points to a new example of love, that of Jesus’ own life. We see his love most fully manifested in his death on the cross (compare John 13:1; 1 John 3:16; 4:9-10). Second, Jesus’ death creates the new fellow ship in which obedience to his command is possible. Jesus’ death is the act by which all God’s people can be gathered together (John 10:16; 11:51-52; 12:24). The command to love was given and modelled by Jesus, and now it is to be put into action by the believing community (2:8). Through their love for one another they testify that the light brought into the world by Jesus’ life continues to shine.
We have seen above that the writings of John make a clear distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of Jesus Christ. The author shows us explicitly what kind of life is expected from new followers of Jesus.
From his writings the apostle clearly defines sin, telling us “sin is the transgression of the law” (1 John 3:4). Like Paul, John describes the saints as “those who keep the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus” (Revelation 14:12). He also gives us this sobering warning: “He who says, ‘I know Him,’ and does not keep His commandments, is a liar, and the truth is not in him” (1 John 2:4). In that glorious final chapter of the Bible, Jesus through the apostle John (Revelation 1:1) reminds us of the supreme importance of God’s commandments to our eternal life. “Blessed are those who do His commandments that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter through the gates into the city” (Revelation 22:14). It is important that we believe what Jesus and His apostles said about their view of the Commandments of God. Once that is clear to us, and then the reasoning of people cannot deter us from respecting and obeying those commandments from the heart. God said to Moses, “Oh that there were such an heart in them, that they would fear me, and keep all my commandments always, that it might be well with them, and with their children for ever!”(Deuteronomy 5:29) And Jesus said, “If you keep my commandments, you shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father’s commandments, and abide in his love” (John 15:10).
Another important thing to say is that, John shows his followers a necessity to keep the entire commandment like Jewish people were directed to keep. He teaches his followers that the law of God is eternal. However Jesus became the fulfilment of the law through Moses they should keep all the rules or code from God. As Thielman wrote, “Jesus does not absolve his followers from a moral code or rule. Jesus’ repeated call for conformity to his commandments clearly indicates the importance of obedience in the life of the believer (e.g., John 14:15, 21-24; 15:10-14,)
The law prefigures the person and works our Saviour Jesus Christ. Since we are the people of God we must obey and fulfil all the commandments gave by Jesus Christ. Jesus is our example; in everything he obeyed His Father. He said: “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfil them.” (Matt. 5:17). Fulfilment was a major preoccupation our Lord, Jesus Christ.
I would like to finish this essay with words from our Lord Jesus Christ: “If you love me, you will obey what I command” (John 14:15).
Module: BS600 Christian Holiness in Biblical Perspective
Date: 26th January 2007
Every single point mass attracts every other point mass by a force heading along the line combining the two. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses:
F is the magnitude of the (repulsive) gravitational force between the two point masses
G is the gravitational constant
m1 is the mass of the first point mass
m2 is the mass of the second point mass
r is the distance between the two point masses
Assuming SI units, F is measured in Newton (N), m1 and m2 in kilograms (kg), r in metres (m), and the constant G is approximately equal to 6.67 × 10−11 N m2 kg−2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton’s_law_of_universal_gravitation
It can be seen that the repulsive force F is always negative, which means that the net attractive force is positive. (This sign convention is adopted in order to be consistent with Coulomb’s Law, where a positive force means repulsion between two charges.)
 Common law -http://www.ll.georgetown.edu/tutorials/definitions/decision.html
 canon law -http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09056a.htm
 A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. Typically, statutes command, prohibit, or declare policy. Statutes are sometimes referred to as legislation or “
 A judgment or judgment, in a legal context, is synonymous with the formal decision made by a court following a lawsuit. At the same time the court may also make a range of court orders, such as imposing a sentence upon a guilty defendant in a criminal matter, or providing a remedy for the plaintiff in a civil law matter. http://www.1-800-translate.com/machine_trans/
 Dale Patrick, Old Testament Law (Atlanta, Georgia: John Knox Press 1985), 8.
 Kenneth , Grayston, The Gospel of John (London: Epworth Press, 1990), 14
 Carson D. A., France R. T., Motyer J. A. & Wenham G. J. eds. New Bible Commentary (Leicester, England Inter-Varsity Press, 2205), 1027
 Severino Pancaro, The Law In the Fourth Gospel (Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill 1975), 9
 Brinsmead, “Law” and “Commandments” in the Gospel of John, 4
 Fraser, OT and John’s Gospel : Characters, 1
 Brinsmead , “Law” and “Commandments” in the Gospel of John, 7
Frank Thielman, The Law and the New Testament, (Downers Grove: Inter Varsity,
 George Zeller, “Voice Magazine”,[cited July/August, 1977]. Online: http://www.middletownbiblechurch.org/dispen/command.htm
 Thielman, The Law and the New Testament, 21