JOHNN WESLEY’S DOCTRINE OF EVANGELICAL REPENTANCE

JOHNN  WESLEY’S DOCTRINE OF EVANGELICAL REPENTANCE

By Danilo Soares de Carvalho

INTRODUCTION:

The terms ‘repent,’ ‘repentance,’ and ‘repented’ are mentioned over 100 times in the Bible. There has been a lot of misunderstanding and confusion as to the precise meaning of the word term repentance. The term repentance derives its root from the Hebrew language. The original word, transliterated as shuwb – simply means to turn around, to turn again; and in the Greek the word for ‘repentance’; is metanoia, which is derived from roots meaning ‘in company with’ (implying ‘another’) and ‘mind’ and purpose.[1]

Though many theologians have grappled with the meaning of repentance, John Wesley took a keen interest in the term in his theological formulation. According to him “repentance frequently means an inward change, a change of mind from sin to holiness.”[2] To qualify it further, he stated that repentance is “the total change of a human heart from a focus on sin to a focus on God. It is a 180 degree change of direction.”[3] Collins has made the following observation of Wesley’s thought on the subject of repentance:

Unlike some other theological thinkers within Protestantism, Wesley considered repentance to be of two sorts. On the one hand, legal repentance entails a thorough conviction of sin at the beginning of one’s spiritual journey; that is, it occurs as the freshly awakened sinner, prompted by the Holy Spirit, sets out on a new course in life with both firm resolutions and sincere intentions. On the other hand, evangelical repentance is more broadly conceived, and it involves a change of heart from ‘all sin to holiness’. As such, this second repentance takes place after one has been justified and born anew.[4]

In the light of the above observations, this research focuses on the second aspect of repentance; namely, evangelical repentance. However, a brief look at the first aspect of Wesley’s repentance will be examined for better comprehension of the second aspect.

REPENTANCE OF SINNER

Wesley’s pastoral experience brought him in contact with many sinners who were convicted of their sins and consequently repented of their sins as they sought for forgiveness from God. According to him, there ought to be repentance before justification. This repentance, he termed as initial or legal repentance as portrayed in his words below:

And first, repent, that is, know yourselves. This is the first repentance, previous to faith, even conviction, or self-knowledge. Awake, then, thou that sleepest. Know thyself to be sinner, and what manner of sinner thou art. Know that corruption of thy inmost nature, whereby thou art very far gone from original righteousness, whereby ‘the flesh lusteth; always ‘contrary to the Spirit’ through that ‘carnal mind which is enmity against God’ which ‘is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be’.[5]

For Wesley, legal repentance is “the very first motion of the soul toward God”[6] This repentance occurs when sinners are convinced by the person of Holy Spirit and they accept to abandon a life of sin and receive the prevenient grace of God through his Son Jesus Christ. When the sinner is convinced by Holy Spirit and moved by faith “he must come as a mere sinner, inwardly and outwardly, self-destroyed and self-condemned, bringing nothing to God but ungodliness only, pleading nothing of his own but sin and misery. Thus it is, and thus alone, when his ‘mouth is stopped’ and he stands utterly ‘guilty before God’, that he can ‘look unto Jesus, ‘as the whole and sole ‘Propitiation for his sins.’ Thus only can be ‘found in him’ and receive the ‘righteousness which is of God by faith’.”[7]

In the following quotation we can see how Wesley briefly summarized his understanding of initial or legal repentance. He states,

Now repentance is not one work alone, but is, as it were, a collection of many others, for in its compass the following works are comprehended: (1) sorrow on account of sin; (2) humiliation under the hand of God; (3) hatred to sin; (4) confession of sin; (5) ardent supplication of the divine mercy; (6) the love of God; (7) ceasing from sin; (8) firm purpose of new obedience; (9) restitution of ill-gotten goods; (10) forgive our neighbour his transgression against us; (11) works of beneficence, or almsgiving.[8]

In light of the above, Wesley taught that legal repentance is the result of the convincing grace of the Holy Spirit that arises from prevenient grace and leads to saving grace. It includes the conviction of sinfulness with the awareness of a need for a Saviour, and an indication of the intent for change.

REPENTANCE OF BELIVERS

John Wesley through his own experiences and also by pastoral’s experiences was deeply convinced that new believers may not be able to initially detect the inward sin that remains in their hearts. At the moment of their conversion, many believers may even initially imagine that all their sins were gone and that they had been completely set free from both outward sin and inward sin. According to his observation, they may even initially feel that they love God with all of the ‘heart, soul, mind and strength’ and their neighbour as themselves.

Wesley in his sermon The Repentance of Believers, wrote why he thought believers need to experience an evangelical repentance. He noted that, “a conviction of the sin which remains in our heart is one great branch of the repentance we are now speaking of.”[9] Wesley clearly shows that after experiencing pardon, justification and regeneration believers still struggle with continuing “pride, self-will in their hearts, even a will contrary to the will of God. A will every man must inevitably have, as long as he has understanding. This is an essential part of human nature, indeed of the nature of every intelligent being.”[10] Wesley noted that, “even with a true believer in Christ. He frequently finds his will more or less exalting itself against the will of God. He wills something, because it is pleasing to nature, which is not pleasing to God….Now self will, as well as pride, is a species of idolatry; and both are directly contrary to the love of God.”[11] From his observations, believers are incapable of doing things which are pleasing to God. Wesley believed that the above happens because new Christians may not be able to initially detect the inward sin that remains in them. The moment of their justification and regeneration may make them initially feel that they have been completely set free from both outward sin, deliberate wilful sin, and inward sin, a heart prone to selfishness, pride, and rebellion against God. They may initially feel that they love God with all their hearts, they may say like Jesus ‘Not as I will, but as thou wilt’. However, as time passes, “he will feel again (though perhaps only for a few moments) either ‘the desire of the flesh, or the desire of the eye, or the pride of life’. Nay, if he does not continually watch and pray he may find lust reviving, yea, and strength let in him. He may feel the assaults of inordinate affection, yea, and a strong propensity to ‘love the creature more than the Creator’.”[12] He will recognize sin remains in him and he needs a second repentance, and after than experiencing a second work of grace namely, entire sanctification.

What is the meaning of second repentance in Wesley’s view?

Wesley’s interpretation termed second repentance as evangelical repentance which occurs after justification and before entire sanctification. He noted that,

The repentance consequent upon justification is widely different from what which is antecedent to it. This implies no guilt, no sense of condemnation, no consciousness of the wrath of God. It does not suppose any doubt of the favour of God, or any ‘fear that hath torment’. It is properly a conviction wrought by the Holy Ghost of the ‘sin’ which still ‘remains’ in our heart, of the pronema tarkos, ‘the carnal mind’, which ‘does still remain’, as our Church speaks, ‘even in them that are regenerate’ – although it does not longer reign, it has not now dominion over them. It is a conviction of our proneness to evil, of a heart ‘bent to backsliding’ of the still continuing tendency of the ‘flesh’ to ‘lust against the Spirit’. Sometimes, unless we continually watch and pray, it lusteth to pride, sometimes to anger, sometimes to love of the world, love of ease, love of honour, love of pleasure more than God. It is a conviction of tendency of our heart to self-will, to atheism, or idolatry; and above all to unbelief, whereby in a thousand ways, and under a thousand pretences, we are ever ‘departing’ more or less ‘from the living God’.[13]

According to Wesley, evangelical repentance “is a change of heart (and consequently of life) from all sin to all holiness.”[14] For him, when believers understand the of state of their lives as “…so far from being able to stand in sight of the divine justice, that for those also we should be guilty before God were it not for the blood of the covenant” [15] Thus, according to Wesley it is very important for believers to be conscious of their needs, because without that conviction they cannot experience evangelical repentance and be entirely sanctified. Wesley noted that,

Hence it is that those believers are not convinced of deep corruption of their hearts, or but slightly and as it were notionally convinced, have little concern about entire sanctification. They may possibly hold the opinion that such a thing is to be, either at death, or some time (they know not when) before it, But they have no great uneasiness for the want of it, and no great hunger or thirst after it. They cannot, until they know themselves better, until they repent in the sense above described, until God unveils the inbred monster’s face, and shows them the real state of their soul. Then only, when they feel the burden, will they groan for deliverance from it. Then and not till then will they cry out, in the agony of their soul,

Break off the yoke of inbred sin,

And fully set my spirit free!

I cannot rest till pure within,

Till I am wholly lost in thee![16]

Collins noted Wesley’s observations by stating that, “In each instance, men and women, under the conviction of sin, come to a greater understanding of themselves in the sight of a holy God. Commenting on the spiritual experience of Jane Green, the wife of one of his preachers, Wesley writes: ‘She never was in darkness or heaviness one hour during the second conviction. Only she felt in a manner not to be expressed her own foolishness, emptiness and nothingness’.”[17]

To Wesley, evangelical repentance is essential for our entire sanctification and absolutely necessary such as faith. He notes that, “And this repentance and faith are full as necessary, in order to our continuance and growth in grace, as the former faith and repentance were in order to our entering into the kingdom of God.”[18]

Evangelical Repentance related with Faith

In light of the last paragraph, we see that, ‘the former faith and repentance were in order to our entering into the kingdom of God and growth in the kingdom’. Oden quoting Wesley wrote, “Repentance and faith are needed first to enter the kingdom, and then recurrently to continue and grow in the kingdom. The call of the gospel to ‘repent and believe’ does not subside after its first address. If one enters the Christian community initially by repenting and believing, so does one continue in it.”[19] According to Wesley’s observation, saving faith involved repentance and belief for believers to put their confidence and trust in the mercy and forgiveness of God. The same way faith is related with evangelical repentance and entire sanctification. Faith for Wesley is “… a supernatural evidence of God and of the things of God, a kind of spiritual light exhibited to the soul, and a supernatural sight or perception thereof.”[20] Continuing with his understanding of faith he said, “faith is a divine evidence and conviction, not only that ‘God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself’, but also Christ ‘loved me, and gave himself for me’. It is by this faith (whether we term it the essence, or rather a property thereof) that we ‘receive Christ’ that we receive him in all his offices, as our Prophet, Priest, and King. It is by this that he ‘is made of God unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption’.”[21]

In his sermon The Scripture Way of Salvation, Wesley showed his consistent understanding about the importance of faith to sanctification. He said:

I have continually testified in private and in public that we are sanctified, as well as justified, by faith . . . exactly as we are justified by faith, so are we sanctified by faith. Faith is the condition, and the only condition of sanctification, exactly as it is of justification. It is the condition: none is sanctified but he that believes; without faith no man is sanctified. And it is the only condition: this alone is sufficient for sanctification. For Wesley it is, very important believers remember that, repentance and fruits meet for repentance is the commandment from God for his people “which if we willingly neglect we cannot reasonably expect to be justified at all.[22]

Maddox makes a further observation of Wesley’s ideas on repentance and sanctification by noting that,

In its most basic sense Wesley understood sanctification to be ‘such a love of God and [others] as produces all inward and outward holiness’. He was convinced that this type of love could only spring ‘from a conviction wrought in us by the Holy Ghost of the pardoning love of God’. What this entails is that faith (understood ‘objectively’ as the evidence of God’s pardoning love for us) is the motivating power of our sanctification. Importantly, this connection of faith to sanctification also implies that faith is not epitome of Christian religion, as many Protestants are inclined to claim[23]

Wesley saw a very close relationship between faith and repentance. According to him faith is the means of receiving the power of God in Christ. This power purifies and cleanses the heart of the believers. On the other hand, those who repent of their sins are still conscious their culpability of their tempers and actions and words. However, faith assures believers of the continuous pleading of their advocate before their heavenly Father; thereby continually turning aside all condemnation and punishment from them. Thus, repentance is the acknowledgement of the human incapacity to deal with sin while faith assures believers of mercy and help from God in dealing with their sins. Wesley’s expression of the above truths are expressed in the quote below:

Thus is that in the children of God repentance and faith exactly answer each other. By repentance we feel the sin remaining in our hearts, and cleaving to our words and action. By faith we receive the power of God in Christ, purifying our hearts and cleansing our hands. By repentance we are still sensible that we deserve punishment for all our tempers and words and actions. By faith we are conscious that our advocate with the Father is continually pleading for us, and thereby continually turning aside all condemnation and punishment from us. By repentance we have and abiding conviction that there is no help is us. By faith we receive not only mercy, but ‘grace to help in every time of need. Repentance disclaims the very possibility of any other help. Faith accepts all the help we stand in need of from him that hath all power in heaven and earth. Repentance says, ‘without him I can do nothing:’ faith says, ‘I can do all things through Christ strengthening me.’ Through him I cannot only overcome, but expel all the enemies of my soul. Through him I can ‘love the Lord my God with all my heart, mind, soul, and strength’, yea, and walk in holiness and righteousness before him all the days of my life.[24]

Further still, Wesley saw evangelical repentance and its fruits “[as] necessary to full salvation, yet they are not necessary either in the same sense with faith or in the same degree. Not in the same degree; for these fruits are only necessary conditionally, if there be time and opportunity for them. Otherwise a man may be sanctified without them. But he cannot be sanctified without faith.”[25] For Wesley evangelical repentance and faith are “intimately connected as expressed bellow:

I sin in every breath I draw,

Nor do they will, nor keep thy law

On earth as angels do above:

But still the Fountain open stands,

Washes my feet, my heart, my hands,

Till I am perfected in love.[26]

Evangelical Repentance related with Works

“John Wesley’s view of repentance is heavily involved with his understanding of justification or pardon and the work of sanctification.”[27] Collin makes the following observation in regard to Wesley: “Works meet for repentance prior to entire sanctification are truly good since it is not prevenient grace that informs them, but nothing less than the sanctifying grace of God.”[28] This implies that Wesley saw repentance as a gift of grace but also as a condition the graciously freed ‘man’ must meet. He affirms the above sentiments when he states that, “It is true repentance and faith are privileges and free gifts.”[29] Thus, according to Wesley, repentance should be accompanied by “fruits meet for repentance,” or works of piety and mercy. Collins noted that, “Throughout his published works, Wesley explores the necessity of works meet for repentance prior to entire sanctification in three key ways. The first way… is obeying the moral law, the second way …is ‘works of piety’, yet another way …is works of mercy…”[30] All the above observations indicate that there was a very close relationship in Wesley’s thinking of repentance and works. In his sermon The Scripture Way of Salvation Wesley asked the following question: “But what good works are those, the practice of which you affirm to be necessary to sanctification?”[31] Answering, this question Wesley wrote,

First, all works of piety, such as public prayer, family prayer, and praying in our closet; receiving the Supper of the Lord; searching the Scriptures by hearing, reading, meditating; and using such a measure of fasting or abstinence as our bodily health allows. Secondly, all works of mercy, whether they relate to the bodies or souls of men; such as feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, entertaining the stranger, visiting those that are in prison, or sick, or variously afflicted; such as the endeavouring to instruct the ignorant, to awaken the stupid sinner, to quicken the lukewarm, to confirm the wavering, to comfort the feebleminded, to succour the tempted, or contribute in any manner to the saving of souls from death. This is the repentance, and these the fruits meet for repentance, which are necessary to full sanctification. This is the way wherein God hath appointed his children to wait for complete salvation.[32]

Collins’ made an observation that Wesley saw three ways in which evangelical repentance related with sanctification. The first (all works of piety) and second (all works of mercy) ways are those that are observed in the above quote while the third is noted in Wesley’s works. In Wesley’s Works, Monday, June 25th, 1744 we see how Wesley answered the following question: “But must not repentance, and works meet for repentance, go before this faith? [Wesley answered], Without doubt; if by repentance you mean conviction of sin; and by works meet for repentance, obeying God as far as we can, forgiving our brother, leaving off from evil, doing good, and using his ordinances, according to the power we have received.[33]

Moral law, according to Wesley, “is right and just concerning all things. And it is good as well as just.[34] A Christian should welcome the moral law which is “an incorruptible picture of the high and holy One that inhabiteth eternity. It is he whom in his essence no man hath seen or can see, made visible to men and angels. It is the face of God unveiled; God manifested to his creatures as they are able to bear it; manifested to give and not to destroy life; that they may see God and live. It is the heart of God disclosed to man.”[35] Collins said “For Wesley, then obedience to the moral law is required in the practical Christian life, not of course as the condition of acceptance, but in order to continue in the rich grace of God… obedience to the moral law of God does not establish the Christian life, but is a necessary fruit of that faith that both justifies and regenerates.”[36] As believers we are not required to keep the law as a condition of acceptance in Christ; however we are under obligation to fulfil the law through faith. For our continuum of Christian growth and maturity, the moral law should be worked out not in an inward spirituality, but in actual outward works of love. Wesley said, “It was his love which explained these living oracles by David and all the prophets that followed; until, when the fullness of time was come, he sent his only- begotten Son, ‘not to destroy the law, but to fulfil’, to confirm every jot and tittle thereof, till having wrote it in the hearts of all his children, and put all his enemies under his feet, ‘he shall deliver up’ his mediatorial ‘kingdom to the Father’ that God may be all in all’.[37] From Jesus we see in His special teaching on the Mount, the moral law is enforced, explained and expounded (Matthew 5:17-48). This is also true in His reply to the question concerning ‘the great commandment’ (Matthew 22:34-40). Paul also states this fact in his epistles (see Romans 13:8-10).

Wesley was quite clear to show that, as believers we must obey the moral law to continue to “grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.”[38] Thus, according to Wesley, loving God and keeping his moral law are necessary works meet for repentance before entire sanctification. Dieter notes that:

Wesley’s understanding of Sanctification is law and love. His studies of the Old and New Testament led him to the conclusion that person who, under grace, fulfil the ‘royal law of love, as taught most simply and explicitly by Christ Himself in the Sermon of the Mount and subsequently by all of the New Testament writings are also fulfilling the moral intent of the Ten Commandment. Wesley thus relates the fulfilment of the law’s moral obligation to the process and of sanctification rather than to the more objective views of Reformation orthodoxy which find the fulfilment and satisfaction of the moral law in the act of the believer’s justification. [39]

Was John Wesley’s doctrine of Repentance consistent?

It has been observed that, “This notion of repentance as realistic self-understanding is crucial in Wesley’s evangelical soteriology [in his sermon] The Way to the Kingdom, what is most distinctive about it is Wesley’s insistence that such repentance precedes justification as, in some sense, a precondition of it.” [40]

From all the above references, it is clear that Wesley’s teachings on the doctrine of repentance were coherent and consistent emphasising two kinds of repentance, legal repentance and evangelical repentance. He made a clear distinction of meaning and timing within which they occur. Outler in his notes in the sermon The Way to Kingdom wrote, “Wesley’s distinctive view of repentance as the self-knowledge which leads to contrition and to casting oneself on God’s pardoning mercy in Christ (‘trust’ rather than ‘assent’).”[41]

Conclusion and Summary:

There is no doubt that Wesley’s understanding of the doctrine of repentance was innovative. He offered a new approach in comprehending the doctrine of salvation. Thus, he can be perceived as a pioneer of the distinction between legal repentance prior to justification and evangelical repentance prior to entire sanctification. This research pointed out that before Wesley the doctrine of repentance was understood mainly as an act prior to justification. In that sense, repentance was not complete turning away from sin but half turn from the life of sin. Thus, Wesley provided a more comprehensive understanding of repentance. Wesley in his reflection understood that justification is not a human initiative but is a result of God’ grace, it is not result of our work but is a gift of God. Like some reformers, Wesley believed that justification is by faith alone; however, the sinner needs to experience repentance before receiving this gift from God. In the same light Wesley understood, through his own experience, believers also need to experience repentance before being entire sanctified. On the basis of that understanding he noted that repentance must be ‘in two sorts; that which is termed legal, and that which is styled evangelical repentance.’ The first is related to conviction of sin, and second with change of heart; the consequence of turning away from a life of sin to a life of total holiness.

Brief Summary of Wesley’s doctrine of repentance

The following is a brief summary of this paper in point form from Wesley’s key doctrine of repentance.

1. Repentance is of two sorts:

a) Initial or legal repentance, which occurs before to justification/ new birth. It entails knowing oneself, it is previous to faith, even conviction, or self-knowledge.

b) Evangelical repentance, which occurs after justification and before entire sanctification, means change of heart (and consequently life) from all sin to all holiness.

2. For Wesley evangelical repentance is essential for our entire sanctification. It is also absolutely necessary and necessitates growth in grace as the former faith and repentance were in order to our entering into the kingdom of God.

3. Moral law, according to Wesley, is right and just in concerning all things. And it is good as well as just. Wesley saw faith as a prerequisite for both justification and sanctification Faith is the condition, and the only condition of sanctification, exactly as it is of justification. It is the condition: none is sanctified but he that believes; without faith no man is sanctified. And it is the only condition: this alone is sufficient for sanctification.

4. For Wesley, repentance should be accompanied by “fruits meet for repentance,” or works of piety and mercy.

5. For Wesley ‘obeying moral law’ is another fruit meet for repentance which is necessary for full sanctification.

6. Wesley was quite clear to show that, as believers we must obey the moral law for our continuing growth in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.

I would like conclude this essay by quoting Wesley’s words in the sermon The Scripture Way of Salvation where he said,

Hence may appear the extreme mischievousness of that seemingly innocent opinion that ‘there is no sin in a believer; that all sin is destroyed, root and branch, the moment a man is justified’. By totally preventing that repentance [evangelical repentance] it quite blocks up the way to sanctification. There is no place for repentance in him who believes there is no sin in his life or heart. Consequently there is no place for his being ‘perfected in love’ to which that repentance is indispensable necessary.[42] (5.170)



[1] See for example a detailed explanation of the term repentance in, W. E. Vine, Merril F. Unger, William White, Jr., Vines Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament (London: Nelson Publishers, 1970), 253.

[2] John Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, Vol.1, Sermon 14, I.15 (edited by Albert C. Outler, Abingdon Press, 1984) 15

[3] J. Steve Harper, The Way to Heaven: The Gospel According to John Wesley, ( Binding, Paperback, 2003) 44

[4] Kenneth J. Collins, The Scripture Way of Salvation: The Heart of John Wesley’s Theology, ( Abingdon Press, 1997) 55

[5] Wesley, The Way to the Kingdom, vol.1 Sermon 7, II.1, 225 (edited by Albert C. Outler, Abingdon Press, 1984) 225

[6] Wesley, N T Notes, Acts 20:21 (Stereotype Edition, with the manuscript correction of the author)

 

[7] Wesley, Justification by faith, vol.1 Sermon V. IV.8, IV:198 (edited by Albert C. Outler. Abingdon Press, 1984)

[8] Wesley, Hypocrisy in Oxford, Vol. IV, Sermon 150, I.7, 1:397 ((English) Sermon 150, edited by Albert C. Outler. Abingdon Press, 1987).

 

[9] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, I.2, 1:337

[10] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, I.4, 1:337

[11] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, I.4,5 1:337,338

[12] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, I.5 1:338

[13] Wesley, John. The Scripture Way of Salvation, Vol. 2, Sermon 43, iii.6 3:164,165 (edited by Albert C. Outler, Abingdon Press, 1985)

[14] Wesley, John. Explanatory Notes upon The New Testament, Mat.3:8 (Stereotype Edition, with the manuscript correction of the author).

[15] Wesley, The Scripture Way of Salvation, iii.7.3:165

[16] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, iii.2, 3:351

[17] Collins, The Scripture Way of Salvation, 156

[18] Wesley, The repentance of Believers, i.3 1:336

[19] Thomas, C. Oden, John Wesley Scriptural Christianity: A Plain Exposition of His teaching onChristian Doctrine (Zondervan Publishing House, 1994) 340

[20] Wesley, The Scripture way of Salvation, II.1 II:160

[21] Wesley, The Scripture Way of Salvation, II.2, II:161

[22] Wesley, The Scripture Way of salvation, III,2 III:162

[23] Randy, L. Maddox, Responsible Grace: John Wesley’s Practical Theology. Kingswood Books, Abingdon Press, 1994), 174

[24] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, ii.6, 2:349, 350

[25] Wesley, The Scripture Way of Salvation, III.13, III:167

[26] Wesley, The Repentance of Believers, III.3, III:352

[27] Charles, Yrigoyen at al. Historical Dictionary of Methodism, (Anti Q Book, Scarecrow, 1996), 255

[28] Collins, The Scripture Way of Salvation, 160

[29] Wesley, John, Works VIII, (Appeals and Minutes Wesleyan- Methodist Book –Room),361

[30] Collins, The Scripture Way of Salvation, 316-363

[31] Wesley, The Scripture way of Salvation, 166

[32] Wesley, The Scripture way of Salvation, 166

[33] Wesley, Wesley’s Works, Vol. VIII, 276

[34] Wesley, The Original, Nature, Properties and Use of the Law, Vol.2, Sermon 34, III.10, III:13 (edited by Albert C. Outler. Abingdon Press, 1985) 13

[35] Wesley, The Original, Nature, Properties and Use of the Law, II.3, II:9

[36] Collins, The Scripture Way of Salvation, 162

[37] Wesley, The Original, Nature, Properties and Use of the Law, III.10, III:14

[38] Wesley, The Original, Nature, Properties and Use of the Law, IV.10, IV:19

[39] Melvin Dieter, Five views on Sanctification, (Zondervan Publishing House, 1996), 25

[40] Wesley, The Repentance of Believer, notes 4 by Albert C. Outler, 335

[41] Wesley, The Way to the Kingdom, notes 53, 225 Variations on this basic theme may be seen in Nos. 3, ‘Awake, Thou That Sleepest’, II.1: 6, ‘The Righteousness of Faith’, II.6; 14, The Repentance of Believers, III.2; 17, ‘The Circumcision of the Heart’ I.2; 21, ‘Sermon of the Mount’, I, I.4; 30, ‘Sermon of the Mount, X’, &7; 33, ‘sermon of the Mount, XIII’, III.6; 78, ‘Scriptural Idolatry’, II.4; see also, below, II.6-7; and Wesley’s notes on matt. 5:3. In No. 79. ‘On Dissipation’, &19, Wesley comments on William Law’s inversion of faith and repentance in the ordo salutes in Law’s Spirit of Prayer (Works, VII.3-143). For Wesley’s denunciation of Bishop Bull’s doctrine of repentance, see Nos. 150 and 151, ‘Hypocrisy in oxford’ (Eng. Text. 1.&; Lat. Text, 1.6).

[42] Wesley, The Scripture Way of salvation, III.11, III:166

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